on the Portuguese plantations of Cape Verde or San Tome.
It can be disputed that all of the following qualify as slavery – the United Nations deems slavery to be "the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised" and slave as "a person in such condition or status".
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Afrocentric academics claim that this was a much milder form of debt bondage compared to that experienced elsewhere, since it would occur on a family or community basis where social ties existed between debtor and creditor. Forced labor, as the name implies, was based on the threat of violence against the laborer (or their family).
It was unusual for a bonded laborer to escape their debt, since further costs would accrue during the period of bondage (food, clothing, shelter), and it was not unknown for the debt to be inherited across several generations.
In the Americas, peonage was extended to include criminal peonage, where prisoners sentenced to hard labor were 'farmed out' to private or governmental groups.
One example is that of Francis Bok, who was taken into bondage during a raid on his village in southern Sudan in 1986 at the age of seven, and spent ten years as a chattel slave in the north of Sudan before escaping.
The Sudanese government denies the continued existence of slavery in its country.