Ten years later, more Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston, thus forming Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the British and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquin allies in North America.
The largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston, which also includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence (the capital and largest city of Rhode Island), with nearly a third of the entire region's population.
In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England first settled in the region, forming the Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607.
Later, New England's economy began to focus on crafts and trade, aided by the Puritan work ethic, in contrast to the Southern colonies which focused on agricultural production while importing finished goods from England.
By 1686, King James II had become concerned about the increasingly independent ways of the colonies, including their self-governing charters, their open flouting of the Navigation Acts, and their growing military power.
After the New England Conquest of Acadia in 1710, mainland Nova Scotia was under the control of New England, but both present-day New Brunswick and virtually all of present-day Maine remained contested territory between New England and New France.
Each state is principally subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries.
The only unincorporated areas in the region exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the numerous rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south.