Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom.
The enactment of the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act took place in 2011, with a view to changing the unequal structure of society.25 In the coming years it is hoped that this change in law will stop women being disproportionately affected by HIV.
The results showed that, of the men questioned, condom use was at 86% with sex workers, 77% with non-regular partners, 63% with a regular partner and just 7% with wives.
This suggests that respondents understood the benefits of condom use but wrongly thought it was not necessary with wives.19 Testing rates among this group were high with 84% of truck drivers having tested for HIV at least once and 87% of them testing within last 2 years and almost all (99%) receiving their HIV results.
Make the hard decision i.e either leave the marriage to free your partner, or commit to stay. You must do whatever it takes UNTIL your partner finds the emotional closure. Friends talk, laugh, share, and do things they’re interested in together.
Around 1.2 million people in Zambia are living with HIV.5 In 2015, life expectancy for men was 59 years and for women 65 years.6 This is a considerable increase from the 2012 life expectancy of 49.4 years, partly thanks to improved access to antiretroviral treatment.7 Unprotected heterosexual sex drives the Zambian HIV epidemic, with 90% of new infections recorded as a result of not using a condom.
Also, many sex workers experience circumcised clients buying sex before their wounds have healed who try to negotiate unprotected sex because they are circumcised; both of these actions directly put sex workers at risk of HIV.17 Many Zambians of both sexes move around the country seeking work.
There are certain regions where this is more common, such as Lusaka and Copperbelt, alongside the main transport routes, where HIV prevalence is higher than other regions.
However, there is still much to be done as more than 30% of ever married or partnered women aged 15–24 years in Zambia experienced physical or sexual violence from a male intimate partner in the previous 12 months, according to 2015 UNAIDS data.26 Children have been severely affected by the HIV epidemic in Zambia, where 85,000 children are estimated to be living with HIV, alongside 380,000 children orphaned by AIDS.27IIn 2016, 8,900 children (0-14 years) in Zambia became newly infected with HIV.
28 Although this is a significant decline from 13,000 new infections among children in 2010, these latest statistics also show a turning trend from recent improvements where, in 2015, just 4,700 new infects occurred among children in comparison.29 There has been a rigorous prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programme implemented in Zambia, which has seen the percentage of children born HIV-positive drop by 51% between 20.30 In 2015, 87% of pregnant women living with HIV were receiving effective antiretroviral treatment, just under universal health targets of 90%.31 Despite these promising changes, new challenges have arisen for those infants exposed to HIV at birth, with many struggling to adhere to treatment.